Model components

Model components

Schamatic animation illustrating the climate model coupler

The components that go into a climate model include an atmosphere model, ocean model, land model (including snow and land ice), and sea ice model. A coupler manages the interactions between the different components, accommodating different grids, resolution, and time steps.

In contrast, NWP models mostly include just the atmosphere. The ocean, land, and ice are prescribed quantities with values derived from current satellite observations, climatology, or a mix of both. These values do not change much over the course of a weather forecast period, so they can be fixed.