Which of the following are resolved processes in a climate model with 50-km grid boxes? (Choose all that apply.)

The correct answers are (b) Conservation of mass in a grid box and (d) Movement of moisture in and out of grid boxes.

The resolved processes balance forces acting in three dimensions, conserve mass, and track the temperature of each grid box. They also track the amount of moisture and other trace products that move in and out of grid boxes. Sub-grid scale processes are determined by "parameterization". These processes include such things as cloud microphysics, cumulus convection and radiative transfer of solar and longwave radiation.

Parameterization schemes are based on which of the following? (Choose all that apply.)

The correct answers are (b) Laws of physics and (c) Observations.

Parameterizations are designed using observations and the laws of physics; they are not a "best guess". Parameterizations do bring with them uncertainty. Some processes are better understood than others. Even so, uncertainty in weather and climate models is decreasing as our understanding of climate and weather processes further improves and computing power continues to increase.