The atmospheric component of climate models differs significantly from numerical weather prediction models. (Choose the best answer.)

The correct answer is (b) False.

The atmospheric component of the climate model is very similar to a numerical weather prediction model. The model solves for both resolved processes, like motion, and parameterized processes, like cloud physics.

Which of the following statements is true about ocean models? (Choose all that apply.)

The only correct answer is (a) Ocean models are forced entirely at the surface.

This includes radiation, tides, winds, precipitation, evaporation, and runoff. Salinity is a predicted value. While early models only simulated surface currents, fully coupled global circulation models simulate currents at all depths.

Why do climate models simulate sea ice? (Choose all that apply.)

The correct answers are (a) and (c).

Ice-covered areas reflect a very high percentage of incoming shortwave radiation. Thus the presence or absence of ice tends to have an inordinately large effect on climate with large feedbacks in coupled systems. Sea ice also acts as a barrier between the liquid ocean and the atmosphere and thus strongly alters the flux of moisture and latent and sensible heat. Melting sea ice would have a very minor effect on seal level. On the other hand, melting land ice in Greenland and Antarctica could raise sea level as much as 70 meters.